An intracranial hemorrhage is the accumulation of blood anywhere within the cranial vault. A cerebral hemorrhage is bleeding within the brain tissue.
Causes: A cerebral hemorrhage can be due to either
A. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage
B. Intraventricular hemorrhage(blood in the ventricular system).
C. Extradural hemorrhage (An extradural hemorrhage is bleeding between the inside of the skull and the outer covering of the brain)
D. Subdural hemorrhage: ( is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury. Blood gathers between the dura mater, and the brain)
E. Sub Arachinoid hemorrhage: (is bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between thearachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain. This may occur spontaneously, usually from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm, or may result fromhead injury.
Most of the hemorrhagic stroke syndromes have specific symptoms particularly
- Loss of consciousness or
- Have evidence of a previous head injury
- Paralysis or loss of muscle movement.
- Difficulty talking or swallowing
- Memory loss or thinking difficulties.
- Emotional problems.
- Physical examination
- Blood tests. You may have several blood tests, which tell Aadil hospital doctors team how fast your blood clots, whether your blood sugar is abnormally high or low, whether critical blood chemicals are out of balance, or whether you may have an infection. Managing your blood's clotting time and levels of sugar and other key chemicals will be part of your stroke care.
- Computerized tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan uses a series of X-rays to create a detailed image of your brain. A CT scan can show a hemorrhage, tumor, stroke and other conditions.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI uses powerful radio waves and magnets to create a detailed view of your brain. An MRI can detect brain tissue damaged by an ischemic stroke and brain hemorrhages.
- Carotid ultrasound. In this test, sound waves create detailed images of the inside of the carotid arteries in your neck. This test shows buildup of fatty deposits (plaques) and blood flow in your carotid arteries.
- Cerebral angiogram. This procedure gives a detailed view of arteries in your brain and neck.
- Echocardiogram. An echocardiogram uses sound waves to create detailed images of your heart. An echocardiogram can find a source of clots in your heart that may have traveled from your heart to your brain and caused your stroke.
Emergency treatment of hemorrhagic stroke focuses on controlling your bleeding and reducing pressure in your brain. Surgery also may be performed to help reduce future risk.
- Emergency measures. If you take warfarin (Coumadin) or anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix) to prevent blood clots, you may be given drugs or transfusions of blood products to counteract the blood thinners' effects. You may also be given drugs to lower pressure in your brain (intracranial pressure), lower your blood pressure, prevent vasospasm or prevent seizures.
- Surgical blood vessel repair. Surgery may be used to repair blood vessel abnormalities associated with hemorrhagic strokes.
- Surgical clipping. A surgeon places a tiny clamp at the base of the aneurysm, to stop blood flow to it. This clamp can keep the aneurysm from bursting, or it can prevent re-bleeding of an aneurysm that has recently hemorrhaged.
- Coiling (endovascular embolization). In this procedure, a surgeon inserts a catheter into an artery in your groin and guides it to your brain using X-ray imaging. Your surgeon then guides tiny detachable coils into the aneurysm (aneurysm coiling). The coils fill the aneurysm, which blocks blood flow into the aneurysm and causes the blood to clot.
- Surgical AVM removal. Surgeons may remove a smaller AVM if it's located in an accessible area of your brain, to eliminate the risk of rupture and lower the risk of hemorrhagic stroke.
- Intracranial bypass. In some unique circumstances, surgical bypass of intracranial blood vessels may be an option to treat poor blood flow to a region of the brain or complex vascular lesions, such as aneurysm repair.
- Stereotactic radiosurgery. Using multiple beams of highly focused radiation, stereotactic radiosurgery is an advanced minimally invasive treatment used to repair vascular malformations.
Consult at Aadil Hospital for medical and surgical procedure.