Teeth may be darkened by a buildup of surface stains (extrinsic staining), which hides the natural tooth color; or the tooth itself may discolor (intrinsic staining)
Causes of extrinsic staining include:
• Dental plaque: although usually virtually invisible on the tooth surface, plaque may become stained by chromogenic bacteria such as Actinomyces species.
• Calculus: neglected plaque will eventually calcify, and lead to the formation of a hard deposit on the teeth, especially around the gumline. The color of calculus varies, and may be grey, yellow, black or brown
• Tobacco: tar in smoke from tobacco products tends to form a yellow-brown-black stain around the necks of the teeth above the gumline
• Betel chewing/ Pan
• Certain foods and drinks.
Causes of intrinsic staining include:
• Dental caries (tooth decay)
• Dental trauma: which may cause staining either as a result of pulp necrosis or internal resorption. Alternatively the tooth may become darker without pulp necrosis
• Tetracycline and minocycline. Tetracycline is able to chelate calcium ions and is incorporated into teeth, cartilage and bone.
• Hemolytic disease of the newborn
• Fluorosis (topographic association)
Defect in tooth structure congenitally:
• Dentinogenesis imperfecta
• Amelogenesis imperfecta
• Enamel hypoplasia
Clinical Examination include:
- Diet and habits:
- Professional tooth cleaning
- Enamel microabrasion
- Bleaching (tooth whitening)
Consult Dentist at Aadil Hospital.