Polio is a contagious viral illness that in its most severe form causes paralysis, difficulty breathing and sometimes death.
a) Nonparalytic polio
A type of polio that doesn't lead to paralysis (abortive polio). This usually causes the same mild, flu-like signs and symptoms typical of other viral illnesses.
Signs and symptoms, which generally last one to 10 days, include:
• Sore throat
• Back pain or stiffness
• Neck pain or stiffness
• Pain or stiffness in the arms or legs
• Muscle weakness or tenderness
b) Paralytic polio
In rare cases, poliovirus infection leads to paralytic polio, the most serious form of the disease. Paralytic polio has several types, based on the part of your body that's affected — your spinal cord (spinal polio), your brainstem (bulbar polio) or both (bulbospinal polio).
Initial signs and symptoms of paralytic polio, such as fever and headache, often mimic those of nonparalytic polio. Within a week, however, signs and symptoms specific to paralytic polio appear, including:
• Loss of reflexes
• Severe muscle aches or weakness
• Loose and floppy limbs (flaccid paralysis), often worse on one side of the body
c) Post-polio syndrome
Common signs and symptoms include:
• Progressive muscle or joint weakness and pain
• General fatigue and exhaustion after minimal activity
• Muscle atrophy
• Breathing or swallowing problems
• Sleep-related breathing disorders, such as sleep apnea
• Decreased tolerance of cold temperatures
• Cognitive problems, such as concentration and memory difficulties
• Depression or mood swings
• Physical Examination
To confirm the diagnosis,
• A sample of throat secretions
• Stool or cerebrospinal fluid (a colorless fluid that surrounds your brain and spinal cord is checked for the presence of poliovirus.)
Because no cure for polio exists, the focus is on increasing comfort, speeding recovery and preventing complications. Supportive treatments include:
• Bed rest
• Pain relievers
• Portable ventilators to assist breathing
• Moderate exercise (physical therapy) to prevent deformity and loss of muscle function
• A nutritious die
Polio Vaccine: There are two types of vaccine that protect against polio:
- Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)
- Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV).
IPV is given as an injection in the leg or arm, depending on the patient's age. Polio vaccine may be given at the same time as other vaccines. Most people should get polio vaccine when they are children.
Children get 4 doses of IPV at these ages:
- 2 months,
- 4 months,
- 6-18 months,
- A booster dose at 4-6 years.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises taking precautions to protect against polio if you're traveling anywhere there's a risk of polio.
If you're a previously vaccinated adult who plans to travel to an area where polio is occurring, you should receive a booster dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). Immunity after a booster dose lasts a lifetime.
Polio Vaccination available at Aadil Hospital. Also, Aadil Hospital is providing inactivate poliovirus vaccine (IPV) to international travellers and issuing them an IPV Certificate.