Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of blood vessels, and the magnitude of this force depends on the cardiac output and the resistance of the blood vessels. Hypertension is having a blood pressure higher than 140 over 90 mmHg.
Normal blood pressure is below 120 systolic and below 80 diastolic
Prehypertension is 120-139 systolic or 80-89 diastolic
Stage 1 high blood pressure (hypertension) is 140-159 systolic or 90-99 diastolic
Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) is 160 or higher systolic or 100 or higher diastolic
Hypertensive crisis (a medical emergency) is when blood pressure is above 180 systolic or above 110 diastolic.
An enlarged or weakened heart, to a point where it may fail to pump enough blood (heart failure).
Aneurysm - an abnormal bulge in the wall of an artery
Blood vessel narrowing - in the kidneys, leading to possible kidney failure; also in the heart, brain and legs, leading to potential heart attack, stroke or amputation, respectively
Blood vessels in the eyes my rupture or bleed, leading to vision problems or blindness (hypertensive retinopathies, which can be classified by worsening grades one through four).
- Patient History
- Physical examination.
- Urine tests
- Kidney ultrasound imaging
- Blood tests
- Monitoring of Blood Pressure
- Chest X-ray
- Blood Pressure Management
- Lifestyle Modifications
- Salt restriction
- Moderation of alcohol consumption
- High consumption of vegetables and fruits and low-fat
- Reducing weight and maintaining it
- Regular physical exercise
Drug treatments for hypertension
- Diuretics (including thiazides, chlorthalidone and indapamide)
- Calcium antagonists
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
- Angiotensin receptor blockers.