Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel.
Type 2 diabetes is primarily due to obesity and not enough exercise in people who are genetically predisposed. It makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes. In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is an absolute lack of insulin.Type 2 diabetes is partly preventable by staying at normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly. Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes.
Some of the signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are:
• Increased thirst
• Frequent urination
• Extreme hunger
• Unexplained weight loss
• Presence of ketones in the urine (ketones are a byproduct of the breakdown of muscle and fat that happens when there's not enough available insulin)
• Blurred vision
• Slow-healing sores
• Frequent infections, such as gums or skin infections and vaginal infections
Tests for type 1 and type 2 diabetes
• Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months.
If you're pregnant or have an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) — your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes:
• Random blood sugar test. Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) — 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) — or higher suggests diabetes.
• Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes.
• Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured
If type 1 diabetes is suspected, your urine will be tested to look for the presence of a by product produced when muscle and fat tissue are used for energy when the body doesn't have enough insulin to use the available glucose (ketones).
Doctor at Aadil Hospital will likely evaluate your risk factors for gestational diabetes early in your pregnancy
• Healthy eating
• Physical activity
• Monitoring blood sugar level
• Oral or other medication
Consult at Aadil Hospital for medical treatment and for your diet plan.